Presentation of the following topics:
Someone in the world should prohibit the incomplete inventions of science – artificial heart oxygenator of blood.
(twenty-first open letter to the International Court of Justice and the United Nations)
My name is Luigi Antonio Pezone. I am a retired industrial expert who has lived half the working life in industrial plant engineering and half in the environmental one. Only as a pensioner I did allow myself to be the inventor to try to correct the incomplete inventions of science. This is not a normal presentation of an industrial or environmental innovation that a public or private company presents to a congress to acquire greater market shares or simply to update the state of the art of a sector specialized in certain technologies. It is the summary of impartial inventions of the undersigned that public and private companies, which participate in congresses, cannot share, unless they first admit that the current development model is wrong, having developed based on random and incomplete inventions, not coordinated by an impartial global scientific committee that does not yet exist. Today it is no longer possible to continue to develop and commercialize random inventions without correcting the inventions of the past and creating complete inventions that close all the cycles they open. Since my presentation is very long and at the same time, I do not speak English fluently, I will say a few things, showing above all the figures. Those interested in learning more about the subject can find this publication on the congress website and on the undersigned website (http://www.spawhe.eu) with the subtitle of twenty-first open letter to the International Court of Justice and to the United Nations. Obviously, the previous twenty letters written by the undersigned to these very important democratic institutions of reference for those who love the planet and sustainable development, have not yet been answered.
Long before Greta Thumberg was born, I realized that we were in bad shape from an environmental point of view. In fact, I started working in 1970 and for about seventeen years I worked on the design of the plants of a multinational company called Alfa Romeo, before it was absorbed by the current Fiat Chrysler (FCA). I was fortunate enough to participate in the installation of the entire plant in Pomigliano di Arco, in the province of Naples, dealing with the lay out of the processing, assembly and internal transport departments. The latter had to guarantee the arrival of the components to be machined and assembled in the right place and at the right time following precise work cycles. Being also sensitive to environmental problems, I understood that even environmental problems could be solved by organizing capillary work cycles, the position of energy and purification plants, above all, transforming the sewage system into an interactive depurative transport system. To deepen my knowledge in global public facilities, in 1987 I left the automotive industry to go to work in a small company that installed sub-contracting systems for lifting water, purification, public energy. After twenty years of this work, as a pensioner, I began the third phase of my life’s work, proposing the inventions of the interactive purification systems between water and air that simultaneously modified both chimneys and sewers and purifiers to create unique purification cycles, both of fumes and water. The study of these systems involved eight years of work with the filing of approximately twenty-five patents, of which one converted into a European patent and five international patents. But global public bodies have never appreciated and implemented them. However, they have grown virtually and their growth can be understood by reading the website from the old home page (http://www.spawhe.eu/hold-home-page/) and going upwards. In fact, assuming them to be functional, all subsequent inventions, gradually, led to the conception by interactive purification systems and interactive energies, without world science, multinationals, world authorities, the United Nations, to notice anything, although the solutions they were regularly deposited in the Italian patent offices and in some cases, european and world. Despite the worldwide organization of patents (W.I.P.O.) is part of the United Nations Organization, which organize COP summits to combat climate change, at the United Nations and in individual countries, no one has ever noticed the interactive purification systems. Not even interactive energies were noticed that I started publishing since two thousand fourteen, when I also created the website and I started to publish articles with the subtitle of open letters to the Italian, European, and above all, to the International Judges and to the United Nations. I have also sent the articles to their e-mail addresses to these large and important global public bodies. I did this because I believe I know my work and I think that my solutions are so simple and logical, that my work would have been useless, if the scientists, the world inventors, who deal with the environment and energy, worked for a only owner, for example the United Nations. A single owner would have eliminated obsolete and uneconomic installations. I also think it is very strange that the United Nations never thought of putting together a working group, that they would study the basic energy and purification solutions, as the undersigned did alone and without economic means. I did this job because everyone criticizes global energy and purification plants but no one studies really alternative solutions to protect the investments already made in these sectors. Unfortunately you can’t save both. This can only be stated by the impartial technical body that does not exist worldwide Instead there are rating agencies, which are not impartial and that do not understand anything about energy and purification plants.
For the undersigned the United Nations, which does not govern any country, should be, above all, a great body of scientific reference, to which all countries should draw for the purposes of proper planning, legislation and work organization in the general interest. In other words, the United Nations, which organized 24 global environmental summits called COP, without bringing any concrete results, would have had to demonstrate practically how to design and legislate in the general interests, without privileging any nation and no energy source, but demonstrating what comes out of the scientific application of global work as it progresses. But also opening up to inventions such as the undersigned inventors who are not tied to any center of power, which today are excluded from any form of public and private financing, without anyone wanting to discuss the solutions. If the governments or the United Nations had done this, as the industry in general, chemistry, automotive, mechanics, aeronautics, naval, agricultural, electro-medical advanced, environmental technologies would also be advanced, becoming interactive. Doing the work that the undersigned has done, with greater scientific and economic resources, it would have been impossible not to notice the interactivity between the physical properties of water, air, the principles of Newton, Torricelli, Pascal, Henry, Venturi, the functioning of the pumps, turbines and the principles of electromagnetism, which enable self-purifying energy processes to be carried out both in fixed and mobile plants. These advances in public research would have allowed lawmakers to also impose improvements in the industrial processes mentioned above in terms of energy and the environment. But the advantages would also have been economic because the energy would cost very little in all areas of human activity.
The two topics presented in this conference have already been published on the website http://www.Spawhe.eu, with the subtitle of letters open to International Judges and the United Nations, respectively with letters 19 and 15, which have not received answer, like all the other seventeen letters concerning purifications and interactive energies. I don’t know if there are other private inventors who develop the details of the energy and purification plants by referring to the complete closure of the general carbon and alkaline cycle. I don’t even know the reasons why these cycles were neglected by the world public research institutes when they designed the current energy and purification plants. I only know that the centers of power that govern the world on these topics do not respond.
I can only write open letters to the highest institutional figures in the world by proposing my solutions, even if they do not answer. Unfortunately, we have no other institutions.
Allow me to mention the greatest scientist of all time. Which is undoubtedly, Albert Einstein, who strongly advocated a world government to avert the danger of a nuclear war. He regretted that his relativity theories had opened the mind to other scientists who started working on the division of the atom, to which he was clearly opposed. Einstein had also sensed practical aspects that prevent development, which today is even more evident. In fact, at a meeting that dealt with “freedom of opinion” he said the following words: “The centralization of production has led to a concentration of productive capital in the hands of a relatively small number of citizens of the country (United States). This small group exercises an oppressive dominion over the educational institutions of our youth, as well as in the large newspapers of the country. At the same time, it has enormous influence over the government. In itself this constitutes a serious threat to the intellectual freedom of the nation. But to this is added the fact that the aforementioned process of economic concentration has generated a previously unknown problem: the permanent unemployment of people able to work.
For the undersigned Einstein was right both as a scientist and on the level of social reasoning. In fact, we don’t need nuclear power to replace fossil energy but only the gravity and physical effects it produces on the earth’s planet. Unfortunately Einstein did not investigate these practical effects and most of the environmental and social ills we are experiencing today are due to the fact that scientists and technicians have misinterpreted the universal energy and purification concepts, focusing only on specific physical and chemical laws, biological, nuclear, mechanical. Instead, the correct search for the best terrestrial energy had to be carried out by rationally interpreting the scientific organization of the work globally. In other words, the concepts expressed by Frederick Taylor in 1911 on the scientific organization of work should not be limited only to the industrial manufacturing sector, but studied globally in all production activities, including the energy and purification sectors, in order to find always the simplest and cheapest solution from the point of view of saving resources, maximum economic yield and compatibility with the environment.
THERE IS NO NEED TO BREAK THE ATOM TO CREATE INFINITE ENERGY, IT IS SUFFICIENT SYNERGIES BETWEEN ELECTROMAGNETISM AND DYNAMIC FLUID.
Nuclear electric energy could not be produced without the existence of electromagnetism The same thing is valid also for other forms of electric energy, which exploit the kinetic energy: thermal, hydroelectric, and wind. Magnetism is a natural phenomenon. Technologic electromagnetism is the multiplication of magnetism through science and technology, which has enabled us to realize electric motors, alternators and direct current generators. The technologic electromagnetism to last over time needs a primary energy, extracted from nature that makes the rotor of the current generator turn. At the state of the art there are many ways to produce primary energy, but the best is the one that costs less, does not pollute and has the smallest footprint with the same developed energy power. Nevertheless, at the state of the art systems that do not pollute are not very efficient and cumbersome (solar and wind energy) But things could change if science admitted its mistakes and the world entrepreneurs, including governments, did the same. In fact, even the third principle from Newton’s dynamics is a natural phenomenon. He says that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. But, with the help of technology, in a particular environment, we can multiply the applied force, and the opposition to motion, due only to the friction of the molecules becomes a very small thing compared to the kinetic energy that develops by exploiting the gravitational forces and the energies of one-way static pressures. Naturally I speak of the aquatic environment that world science has never seriously considered to twenty meters deep from the suction side of the pump, we have 30 m of water column. We also have the same static pressure at the pump outlet. However, if we put the pump into operation (ie we apply force), things change completely because the kinetic energy E = mgh = 1/2 m v2 / 2g develops in the water drop tube and the pump The pump output does not have a reaction force, but only the loss of pressure at the submerged outlet V2 / 2g, which dissipates this energy in heat by the friction between the water molecules, since the static pressure does not oppose the output of the mass “m” from the pump. This means that we, instead of dissipating the energy of the mass into heat, we can exploit this energy by putting in series to pump a turbine connected to the submerged electromagnetic power generator and produce electrical energy, that can be used away from the volume of water that has generate it. In this case, who produces electricity is the kinetic energy of water due to the 30 m of water column (20 + 10 m), the pump consumes a small amount of the energy produced, to win the initial state of inertia, as in any hydraulic circuit, where the suction and delivery pressure are balanced. However, in a closed circuit it is not possible to produce energy because the water in the circuit is not renewed and therefore does not exploit the energy of position “h” (20 + 10 m), while in the case in question the water is continually renewed being the open circuit: the surface water moves from the surface to the bottom e and stops. Therefore, in the aquatic environment the third principle of dynamic (applied to incompressible molecules, not to immersed bodies) is not valid and we can multiply the energy consumed by the circulation pump in direction of gravity proportionally to the hydrostatic pressure acting on the suction side of the pump. In other word, we can use the pumps that are invented to lift water to produce energy.
In order to exploit this system also outside the aquatic environment, we have to build systems that are always full of water and modify the way of feeding the current pumps, so that an external quantity of water can enter through the circulation pumps. The same amount of water that enters the pump from the external circuit is expelled from the entire system due to the impenetrability of the bodies, in pressurized autoclaves with compressed air. In the latter case we can exploit the expulsion energy to produce a much greater amount of electrical energy and reduce the size of the systems that can also be mounted on transport vehicles. The pump with the double supply consumes little energy because it works with the pressures balanced in suction and delivery like all circulation pumps. In a sense, the amount of excess water that enters the already full hydraulic system, which could be assimilated to the atomic energy produced by the breaking of the atom, as effectively explained by Albert Einstein in the example already mentioned in the article http://www.spawhe.eu/the-lost-civilizations-einstein-s-thought-and-survival-energy/: “The atom M is like a rich miser who, as long as he lives, gives no money (energy). But in his will he leaves his fortune in inheritance to his sons M ‘and M “, on the condition that they allocate a small amount for social purposes (less than a thousandth of the entire patrimony of energy or mass). The children together receive a little less than their father, but the part destined for society, although relatively small, is nevertheless so important (considered as kinetic energy) that it constitutes a great threat. Threatening this threat has become the most pressing problem of our time “.
As explained above and in numerous other publications, in our case there is no need to divide the atom: it is sufficient to create an open / closed dynamic fluid circuit, which allows multiplication of the primary energy extracted from nature, and ‘electromagnetic energy without violating the principles of energy conservation and without resorting to nuclear energy and all the complications that entails environmental and economic. In fact, the system automatically expels the same amount of water that enters excess through the recycling circuit without changing neither the volume of water nor the pressure of the compressed air, producing hydroelectric energy by statically exploiting the principle of Pascal (which does not consume energy ) and the Torricelli principle (which equally does not consume energy).
These arguments do not arise only from the technical and scientific reasoning but also from the reasoning of the organization of global work. Each technical and scientific step can lead in one direction or another direction, completing all the cycles, or not completing them all. This is a technical but also a moral choice. We can also call it an economic choice. Pure science cannot hide behind the word games. He has the duty to develop all the options and only at the end choose the best solution for the good of all. In my experience, world public science has not done its duty. If he had investigated, eventually it would have arrived at my solutions and the world public legislators would have been obliged to legislate them in favor of the environment and the sustainable economy. Instead, on these topics, despite the many publications there is a silence of the grave. There are too many options deliberately overlooked by science. For many years, I have been wondering what has influenced science without ever having answers? Yet even the soldiers sometimes disobeyed orders not to produce innocent victims.
The words of Einstein, which I extracted from the book “Thoughts, ideas, opinions of Einstein” of Newton Compton Publishers, seem a prophecy because today there would be work for everyone just to correct all the world plants that pollute the environment with paid fuels , while we could have free interactive energies that protect the environment. They would only consume materials but to a lesser extent than current systems that use thermal energy and mechanical transmissions. But nobody brings out the little money needed for experimentation. Not even the poor who would benefit much more from it.
For the undersigned, the greatest damage is being caused by the scientific bodies and the media that keep silence waiting for the truth to come out by itself so as not to put themselves against their employers. Today we are not summing up global scientific expertise to achieve common goals. We are realizing a development without any scientific and technological coordination from the world institutional bodies. No plant made by man is truly sustainable from an environmental and economic point of view. To add up the skills by integrating them together, more complex reasoning is needed, which no one wants to do in order not to discover the Pandora’s box of global scientific inefficiencies, which concern the way in which the design of world plants must be done, which must be interdisciplinary. Indeed it could have been interdisciplinary since the advent of the industrial era, if the best world brains, immediately after the knowledge of the theory of relativity, had not devoted themselves to nuclear research, probably, encouraged by the ambitious governments that were preparing to do the first and the second world war. For this reason Einstein was against the division of the atom, which led to the Hiroshima bomb and feared for the third world war. The thirst for power of some world governments has stimulated nuclear research as if it were the only source of infinite energy, neglecting to deepen the practical effects that gravity could produce on planet Earth also for energy purposes. The most obvious example of the lack of practicality of science is precisely the interactive energies, which were visible to everyone and which no one saw, including myself, until I developed the details of global purification. In fact, my goal was not to produce energy. I just wanted to affirm that even CO2 could be used in favor of the environment by producing carbonates in water. But the interactive energy could not escape the undersigned because I had entered into the details of the global and interdisciplinary purification processes of water and air, starting from the origins of the processes, before entering the sewers and letting out the fumes in the atmosphere after making them react with water and limestone. In fact, the scientific organization of global work is a mosaic that must be developed in every detail of human activity, rejecting all the solutions that waste resources and energy unnecessarily and do not properly close the chemical and biological cycles they open. Having the world’s public bodies wrong, purification systems have also failed energy research. Although boilers, steam turbines, heat engines, blast furnaces, incinerators, were inventions of private industry, purification and energy supply were and are public tasks. Designing the water and smoke purification correctly, sooner or later, the knots of the carbon cycle closure, which has never been closed and the waters that are acidifying because they have never been alkalized, had to come out necessarily because the two cycles are complementary and had to be unified. In fact, CO2 reacts with calcium and water to produce carbonates in water, solving both problems. But it is not possible to do this with calcium oxide or commercial hydroxide, since each kg of calcium oxide produced by heating the limestone to almost 1000 centigrade, involves the emission into the atmosphere of about 2 kg of CO2, in part due to the ratio between the molar masses, partly due to the heat to be developed by burning fuels. Therefore, in order for the process to be sustainable from an environmental point of view, the carbonates in the water must be produced by corroding cold calcareous rocks in the limestone greenhouses proposed by the undersigned since 2012, which no world public body has ever built small or large size. This solution requires large circulations of water, which involve large spaces and high energy consumption to circulate water. But the world public bodies that have built very large thermal power stations, have not foreseen, neither the cold neutralization cycle of CO2, nor the necessary spaces, nor the amount of water needed, so they wanted to hide the CO2 underground. While the undersigned who proposed complete cycles has been isolated from everyone and his patents have been dropped. In this presentation of a few minutes thirteen years of work cannot be exhibited. I can only show the figures of the plants rejected by the world public bodies, which gradually, the undersigned has improved to economize the processes, up to realize that the pumps invented to lift the water, if used to send the water down can become a great energy production tool, simply by exploiting the energy of the surface water with respect to that of the seabed and the force of gravity in plants that are always full of water. Given the low costs of this clean energy production, it is not even worth extracting fossil energy from underground. It is better to scrap everything and start from scratch by saving the technologies that can be saved to produce interactive energy, which can be produced at all hours of the day and night, even at the poles and deserts. The more we produce it, the more we oxygenate water.
Looking at the figures that I will publish below, which have been extracted from the unrealized patent applications, it can be seen that the state of the art is still advanced albeit only virtually in all sectors following the invention of the pump with the double separate supply until to the impeller. The progress involved all sectors, including land, sea and air transport, until to the artificial heart.
This plant represents the first example of “organization of environmental work” because those who thought that water and air purification could take place without widespread worldwide work are naive even if they were awarded Nobel prizes. In fact, those who receive these coveted awards, from the moral point of view, cannot remain silent on the general aspects of the organization of world work, which is also the basis of sustainable economic development. Public technicians must not be offended, but if they do not decide to establish global purification cycles, starting from small domestic plants, from changes in chimneys and sewers, pollution and global warming cannot be combated. But unemployment cannot be fought either. Governments without ideas, along with legislators, public scientists, economists and judges, do not understand that industrial automation produces unemployment, while in the environment and energy sectors, all installations, fixed and mobile, are incomplete from the point of view environmental. It’s all to be redone. It ‘better to create useful work to protect the environment than paying unnecessary unemployment benefits.
The superficiality of world governments and their advisers is impressive. They think they solve the problems of urban pollution with battery-powered cars, but they aggravate the problem of global warming even more, making transport means less efficient and uneconomical. They do not understand that to power the batteries, apart from the costs necessary for the construction, the management, the consumption of resources, they lower the yields of the energy production and we must greatly increase the production of fossil energy, moreover with the current plants that should to be scrapped, both as incomplete fossil plants, and because, they would be widely superseded by the various versions of compressed and uncompressed interactive hydroelectric energies, with recycled water.
Another unfinished plant is the recycling of sanitary water in domestic heating boilers and domestic hot water production, where water and methane are wasted while hot water is expected to reach the consumption tap. With the circuit proposed by the undersigned in far back in 2006, both savings could be saved. Today the manufacturers do not modify the boilers spontaneously because they would unnecessarily increase the cost of the boilers because the domestic systems are designed without the tube that returns to the boiler and the plant installers do not realize the plants with the recycling of the water because there are no boilers in degree to realize the type of savings proposed by the undersigned. What is the use of global public research if they do not experiment these things to impose them to boiler manufacturers and home installers?
This system could have worked in two ways:
Continuously recycling hot water in the sanitary circuit. Or by starting the heating when the flow switch F or the pressure switch Ps detect the opening of a tap. The user who wants to save water and energy would have to close it again and wait 20 – 30 seconds to reopen it again and use hot water. While in the current systems it waits 20 – 30 seconds with the tap open waiting for the water to become hot. Instead, this plant has never worked either in one way or another because global public bodies have never included it in public regulations, which use domestic boilers. If I had been a young inventor, I would probably have focused only on developing the prototypes of these two domestic systems, turning myself into an entrepreneur. Probably, I would have made more money and I would not have produced other inventions. Instead, the case wanted me to start working as a retired inventor and I had many ideas to develop. I couldn’t waste time developing the patents myself, because I didn’t know how many years life gave me. Not finding public and private interlocutors, I went on to develop the following ideas, which very strangely, did not even find public and private interlocutors. I think that today it is much more difficult to be an inventor than in the past because the alliances between public bodies and multinationals have created authentic centers of power that prevent the realization of new ideas also through the patent trade and the absurd rules of the legislators that deny the copyright to inventors who cannot pay the patent maintenance fees that no government intends to finance precisely because of the scientific ignorance of the ruling class, fueled even by the silence of science, which tries to hide its mistakes. If the lies have short legs, sooner or later even the silences will be discovered. Those who lose out the credibility are all public institutions worldwide. None excluded. But even private institutions, such as Rating agencies, that give efficiency scores to individual countries, have failed to understand that the basis of the entire world economy is wrong.
Today, even this plant, which has never been built, has been exceeded, at least by the undersigned on http://www.spawhe.eu, because it does not need either methane or boilers to produce domestic hot water, heating and cooling, but no thanks to the global public research and legislators who are doing everything to delay progress and sustainable economy, to save what can be saved of this economy based on incomplete inventions . These incomplete inventions could only be overcome by going into the details of all the world plants, improving the purification processes and saving resources through the scientific organization of global work. Sooner or later even those who are not great scientists like Albert Einstein would have noticed the usefulness of the principles of Henry, Pascal, Torricelli and that the turbines and autoclaves had to be used differently to arrive at the invention of hydroelectric energy compressed. In human homes, including those at the poles and in the deserts, heating and cooling systems and the distribution of consumer water will produce much more energy than they consume. In the future, governments will have to pay the consumption bill to users, because fossil thermal energy will be completely eliminated and public lighting will not be provided by current thermal power stations but by excess energy produced by private plants, without any type of fuel.
If the world power centers, which have warmed the planet wanted to continue using fossil energy, they would have had to carry out the first phase of the global environmental protection system designed by the undersigned called SPAWHE, where SP means “Synergic Plants”. The purification of fumes and water was to begin in urban centers by modifying both the chimneys and the sewers, and the way of designing the heating, air conditioning and purification systems inside homes and industrial plants, so as to create systems complete. While the large thermal power plants should have been flanked by large water and smoke purifiers with common purification cycles, as indicated below.
The figure below shows a global synergic purification, biomass production and cogeneration plant composed of four international patents that have not found public interlocutors worldwide. Evidently, the governments and their consultants have considered satisfactory the performances of the current world plants, which are arranged at random on the territory, they carry out partial water purification, they only filter the fumes, they do not neutralize the CO2 through the limestone greenhouses producing carbonates in the water that they discharge. The result that we currently have is global warming due to the CO2 that continues to increase in the atmosphere and the purifiers that produce acid water, since the water oxidation treatments without natural alkalinization produce acid water and they also emit Co2 into the atmosphere through the open-air pools. Current international laws accept wastewater with 5.5 PH, precisely because global facilities have never been designed anywhere in the world.
The figure above shows the cross section of the overall system. The mechanized greenhouse can be seen in the center of the FSV building, on the sides the overlapping biological ponds, with the respective tanks of recycling and water purification. Abroad there are the LDDC buildings that flank the FSV buildings for the entire length. The complete description of these plants that would solve all the problems that today are produced by thermal power plants and water purifiers that carry out incomplete purification. The details of these facilities are described on http://www.spawhe.eu/synergic-plants-files/
The figure below, instead, shows an urban scheme that does not waste anything, because even the heating and air conditioning systems are connected to it by means of air filtration, and low enthalpy heat exchange, while the water is purified. first in the sewage system, then in the overlapping biological ponds. The CO2 is chemically neutralized producing carbonates in the water circulating in the sewage systems and in the global purifiers. Instead, urban sludge is transferred anaerobically to digesters. Therefore, the entire system purifies water, air, exchanges summer and winter heat with the subsoil, and ends with the production of biological energy. Obviously, in this system, that when it was born it did not foresee the use of pumps with double feeding, pressurized autoclaves and small turbines, the purification yields will be multiplied and the energy costs eliminated, since the plant will produce much more energy than it consumes. Details of this facility can be found at http://www.spawhe.eu/synergic-plants-files/
The second part of the SPAWHE system is represented by the letters A.W. which signify ARTIFICIAL WELLING. In fact, if we want to avoid the acidification of the oceans and solve food problems, we need to bring a small part of the calcium and carbon solubilized over 4.5 billion years back to the surface in the ocean planes. Because, today only 5% of the ocean surface produces food, and this happens where natural welling occurs. Furthermore, with the advent of the industrial age the oceans have lost 30% of alkalinity. The only defense that we can implement, besides reducing CO2 emissions and improving purification systems, also alkalizing the waters that go to the sea is precisely artificial welling. The system diagram is shown in the figure below. Where the venturi bottlenecks that suck carbon and calcium are positioned below the carbonates solubilization threshold, at over 4500 meters of depth. Details of this facility can be found at http://www.spawhe.eu/artificial-welling-files/
The plant shown below shows the artificial welling plant with the seawater desalination plant reported above, detailed in http://www.spawhe.eu/sustainable-desalination/, which together with the system of floatation reported in http://www.spawhe.eu/artificial-welling-files/, will allow to create work and well-being and to populate the oceanic plains with artificial islands without dangers of earthquakes and tsunamis.
The system below shows the submerged hydroelectric energy that the undersigned has identified in 2014, simply by intubating (theoretically) from the surface of a basin the water and putting in series a pump with the delivery to the bottom and a turbine that discharges the water in the seabed. This simple system can produce energy at infinity because the kinetic energy that develops in the descent tube ((1/2 mass multiplied 2 squared) saves energy to the motor that feeds the pump, while it increases the electric energy that the generator of current coupled to the turbine produces. Infact, this by slowing down the speed of the water, transfers all its force to the shaft of the current generator. In fact, with this system we could produce electricity by exploiting the energy of the surface water position compared to that found in the seabed. Who asserts that the water that comes out consumes energy for the ascent is wrong because going out on a large surface the speed of ascent would be equal to zero. Furthermore, the water does not need to rise to the surface at the expense of the energy produced, being an incompressible liquid that spontaneously assumes the shape of the basin that contains it. Therefore, the electricity produced is due to the potential energy transformed into kinetic (mass multiplied gravity acceleration multiplied h) as the hydraulic circuit is an open circuit and is affected by the force of gravity. The water enters the descent tube from above and leaves the turbine without finding any resistance to the outlet, except for the friction between the molecules (v2 / 2g) (squared speed divided by 2 multiplied gravity acceleration), as in all submerged outlets. Below are also reported several applications of this system assumed at atmospheric pressure in non-submerged systems.
A closed circuit, even if pressurized, cannot be transformed into an energy circuit because it cannot exploit any energy of water position. In other words, since the gravitational force cannot enter, the mass does not transform into weight, multiplying with the acceleration of gravity (m per g). Therefore, if we insert a turbine, it would produce less energy than the pump consumes because of the load losses due to friction.
In the above circuit the water is raised from the lower basin to the upper basin producing in the turbine current generator much more current than that which the motor coupled to the pump consumes because the water of the lower basin by means of the pump with the separate double supply up to the impeller enters in the open recycling circuit of the upper basin. While to let the total flow into the upper basin the water must not overcome the hydrostatic pressure due to the total height but only the pressure drops of the pipe and the valves and at the outlet (v2 / 2g), since the hydrostatic pressures are balanced by the descending tube which feeds one of the two inlets into the pump impeller with the separate double feed up to the impeller.
As can be seen in the figures above, in some circuits at atmospheric pressure they were used pumps with the double supply on the suction side before of the turbines, but like the previous ones also these pumps instead of being used to lift water are used to push it towards the low. The reason is very simple because, by changing the power supply and using them in this way all the hydraulic systems that raise the world waters that today represent an immense energy expenditure, can be transformed into energy producers and simultaneously lift the waters, if the basins upper ones always remain full with wide section ascent pipes, in order to reduce the load losses to assimilate the operation to the submerged hydroelectric system. In fact, by recycling the water of the upper basins (wddr1 – 2 – 3) with one of the two pump feeds we can balance the hydrostatic thrust in the pump body and take advantage of the depression that creates the centrifugal pump in the center of the impeller to let the water from the low basin (wlb) to enter in the recycling circuit of the upper basin, which with the same system transfers water to the following basins. Since the hydraulic circuits are open, kinetic energy is developed in the descent piping thanks to gravity and atmospheric pressure which are used by the turbine to produce electricity, while the pump motor only has to overcome the inertial state.
While developing these solutions, the world of science and entrepreneurs remained stationary and silent to hide the mistakes made. With the complicity of the ministerial bureaucrats and the patent offices that declare the my very simple reflections perpetual motion, they are neglecting the possibility of producing abundant hydroelectric energy by recycling water without polluting and without building dams and large basins that have altered the natural world water distribution and produced drought and floods. The pump with the separate dual power supply up to the impeller, which no one wanted to experiment, has plunged the knife into the scourge of scientific, entrepreneurial, political and legislative inefficiencies worldwide, also allowing the invention of compressed hydroelectric energy that multiplies even more the energy yields by increasing pressures and making plants even more smaller, which can also be mounted on transport vehicles. Obviously, we cannot neglect even the purifying effects due to Henry’s law, since every time the water introduced through the second supply of the pump passes through a pressurized autoclave, this due to the principle of impenetrability of the bodies, is forced to expel the same amount of water already present in the autoclave, which contains an amount of oxygen greater than that allowed at atmospheric pressure. In fact, at 20 ° C and at atmospheric pressure, in fresh water we can have a maximum of 9.17 mg / L, which corresponds to 100% saturation. Obviously, in a pressurized twenty-bar autoclave that drains water into a basin, a well, or a sewage pit, we will have a greater amount of oxygen supplied free, in addition to the energy that will also be free. This is not perpetual motion, there is the wear of the machines. It is only a correct design of the systems that the ruling classes of the past and present have never financed. Governments today welcome a young girl who scolds them (Greta Thumberg) with the honors of a head of state, while ignoring the undersigned who has proposed solutions for thirteen years, after having spent a lifetime studying the scientific organization of work, the plants industrial, environmental and energy.
The main mistake committed by those who have studied without understanding the general principles of energy is the difference between electricity and the primary energy used to produce it.
Thermodynamics serves to produce heat, not electricity. Electricity is produced in many ways, but the most efficient way is through electromagnetism and this is produced by rotating magnetic brushes (rotor) in an electric field wrapped in a solenoid (stator). More bigger is the rotor that turns, more greater is the number of rotating brushes, more greater is the amount of energy produced. But to turn the rotor a primary energy is needed which must be cheap and must be clean. Only inventors and incompetent scientists used indirect primary or polluting energies to make the rotor turn. Among the indirect means is heat, solar energy, electrolysis, chemistry, biology. The direct ones are hydroelectric and wind power, but the most convenient is the hydroelectric system because the water has a density eight hundred thirty times higher than air. The absolute best method is the system that allows the recycling of water. It would have been enough to remember that the energy is due to the product of the flow rate for the pressure of the fluid density to understand that no thermal energy, produced with fuels and one-way combustion gases, can approach the efficiency of an energy that exploits much higher liquid density and the static pressure of the compressed air that can reach even thousands of bars, moreover, without dispersing into the environment, but dissolving slightly in the water up to the saturation point, purifying it. But on the planet Earth, since the advent of the industrial era, we are producing electricity, without recycling water, with plants that exploit the flow of water in a one-way direction, through hydraulic leap and river currents. These hydroelectric plants, in many cases, have produced more disasters than benefits to accumulate water by means of dams, which have created flood disasters and summer droughts.
Therefore, after the inventions of the submerged hydroelectric energy, the pump was invented with the separate double supply up to the impeller which led first to the solutions, with the recycling of the water and the lifting to the atmospheric pressure already illustrated above, and then to the recycling and lifting with pressurized autoclaves, which further reduce the overall dimensions and improve energy and purification performance, up to being able to be mounted on transport vehicles, and suitably miniaturized, even in the man’s chest. But the scientific, political, economic, entrepreneurial, religious, trade union, environmentalist world has not noticed this virtual increase in the state of the art. He continued to raise funds and loans to increase the number of current installations that produced global warming, or to finance current renewable energies that, not being interactive, having high costs, low returns, cannot effectively combat global warming, reversing the process, as is possible with compressed interactive energy.
Besides, simultaneously, to my inventions, as we know, electromagnetism is making strides, and the rotors always absorb less energy, as if they had mass. Indeed, we are witnessing videos on Youtube showing power generators not connected to any energy source, to which it is sufficient to only give the initial energy supply (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EmdKVecQhXs). Moreover, here we return to the concept of perpetual motion and mass in motion, which is fundamental for understanding the interactive energy, which the undersigned proposes, since, in the past, mass was defined as the quantity of matter that constitutes the body. Today physics provides a much more rigorous definition: “The mass of a body is the measure of its inertia, that is, of the resistance that the body opposes to all the variations of its state of rest or motion”. In the case of hydroelectric submerged and compressed the body does not move. Only the water moves inside the accumulated volume and through the machines mechanical energy is produced, which transformed into electromagnetic can reach very high powers, which without fuels, move the body that contains the volume of water and air that supply the primary energy for electromagnetism that powers the motors of the wheels or propellers. I say that only with this type of energy can we also conquer space without endangering the lives of men and only with this energy and the artificial heart oxygenator of blood we can extend the life of man.
Today, unfortunately, the worst enemies of progress and sustainable inventions are within the global public, scientific, political, legislative and legal institutions. I hope they realize that they cannot obey orders blindly. At least as pensioners, they find the courage to reason freely in the interests of their grandchildren, because for their children it is already too late.
In the following figures we will see the applications of compressed hydroelectric energy on transport vehicles, without exception, which are based on the same energy principles. If we consider that we do not need the fuels to produce energy, it means that the means of transport will be safer and the greater weight due to the turbines, electric motor, current generators, will be compensated just by the absence of fuels. Moreover, considering that the energy will not cost anything and that the volume of water inside the autoclaves never changes because it expels all the water that enters from the feeding in low pressure, for the principle of the impenetrability of bodies, in the same instant that enters, with the same volume of water, we can have more energy systems in parallel. This means that we increase the safety of means of transport, especially aircraft and submarines, which work in conditions of danger for human life. But at the same time we are not required to save energy and therefore, in the case of air transport, we must not abide by the laws of dynamic aviation. We simply have to use a large amount of turbo electric fans that move large volumes of air from above to below the means of transport so as to create the vacuum in the upper area and the lift thrust in the lower part. As a result, we will circumvent the gravitational force and rise in the atmosphere. The air transport of the future over large distances will be cheaper and safer than other means of transport as it will not need fuels, nor will it need infrastructure, such as roads, viaducts, bridges, tunnels, railways. These infrastructures need maintenance and are subject to collapses due to old age, such as the Morandi bridge in Genoa on 14 August 2018. But other collapses and alterations of the structures can produce earthquakes. Moreover all these works require deforestation. With vertical flight it will also be easier to extinguish fires, approaching fires and creating a normal fire rain. Not violent water jets that produce other damages. Let’s think again about the cathedral of Notre Dame there could be saved with a fire extinguishing system with hydroelectric power compressed from below and another from above. But the ruling class and world science have pretended not to understand these very simple inventions to save the oil economy. For more details see http://www.spawhe.eu/aerospatial-pressurized-hydroelectric-transport-system/, http://www.spawhe.eu/hydroelectric-power-auto-with-torque-peripheral-to-the-wheels/.
From the above, we can easily understand that the best way to advance global development, in addition to research, is above all the study of the scientific organization of work, but done globally. This study cannot be done by entrepreneurs because multinationals also deal with individual sectors and can only organize work inside their factories, where I learned to put together the plants respecting the work cycles to produce a thousand cars a day. But I didn’t realize that there could be a clean and cheaper engine than the one mounted on the cars that Alfa Romeo and other global companies produced. How I didn’t realize that even the factory chimneys and the water purification system were not efficient. To notice these things I had to change jobs and observe the organization of work from another point of view, even if I could not suggest my solutions, being obliged to respect the orders received and the public procurement specifications. The solutions I studied and published as a pensioner, after having filed them as patents. Obviously, I did not expect so much indifference to the solutions I proposed. But precisely this resistance has stimulated me even more to move forward. I didn’t know how far I would go with my own strength, but the deeper the solutions, the more convinced I became that the inefficiency of global public facilities is spreading in all directions precisely because they do not follow cycles studied before realizing the facilities between the various company experts, as happens in large private companies. The undersigned, studying the organization of environmental and energy work together has increased purification and energy productivity with very small changes to existing technologies, but the existing purification and energy plants need very big changes. Few things can be saved.
Only by establishing global work cycles, which obviously no world public institution has taken into consideration and through the virtual modifications of the chimneys, sewage and thermal plants, was it possible to identify the interactive energies that exploit together, the water, the air, the gravitational force and from these arrive to the compressed hydroelectric energy, which forced me to go back to modify the first inventions made, when I had not yet identified the power of this system. But only by establishing global work cycles, and through the virtual modifications of the chimneys, sewage and thermal plants, was it possible to identify the interactive energies that exploit together, the water, the air, the gravitational force and from these arrive to the compressed hydroelectric energy.
How could public institutions and multinationals that have not taken this route and which have even hindered it by not understanding it or pretending not to understand it yet, while I speak at this congress, identify hydroelectric energy?
I am participating only because the congress organizers have accepted my participation without payment of the fee they pay all speakers representing public and private companies. However, I would not have attended the congress if this had taken place abroad and I also had to incur expenses for travel and overnight stays in the hotel. Obviously, I thank the organizers of the congress, but I expect answers from the world institutions that want to fight pollution, unemployment, and would like a sustainable economy, but in fact, with their laws they hinder the work of inventors like the undersigned that they do not find any collaboration from the research bodies and from the legislators who do not recognize the intellectual property and the author’s rights to the inventors, not linked to centers of power that can afford industrial property. It does not take much to understand that inventions of public utility, such as those produced by the undersigned, above all compressed hydroelectric power, must be made accessible to all without any industrial monopoly if we want to make up for lost time in the direction of environmental protection, sustainable development and the fight against global unemployment.
However, the logic of the plants proposed by undersigned has not changed, since the progress of the state of the art only involves the replacement of the current lifting pumps with a complete group that recycling water on itself and exploiting the force of gravity and the principle of Impenetrability of bodies makes it possible to transform current plumbing systems to produce much more energy than they consume without violating the principles of energy.
In fact, even the domestic water saving plant that no one has ever built, illustrated in the first pages has been modified and simplified to become an energy producer, like all the other plants of the undersigned patented uselessly from 2006 to 2016.
The figures below show other very important plants for the protection of the environment and sustainable energy production that have never been made, which can be found described in all the details on http // www.spawhe.eu.
Let’s talk a moment about the crime of omission committed by global public bodies on CO2 cleaning systems. The science close to the United Nations (IPCC), awarded with the NOBEL in 2007 along with former US vice president Al Gore, strongly wanted the CCS system to save the current thermal power stations, with a chemical washing of fossil fuels that increases the energy costs of 12%, while costs with coal would increase by 30%, but without neutralizing CO2. Catching it and hiding it only under very high pressures (800 bar) at about a thousand meters deep in land cavities to be identified. This absurd solution so far throughout the world has cost at least fifty billion dollars could lead to the release of gas due to earthquakes or even trigger them and make victims among the populations (Effetto Nyos). This super award-winning science, due to its competence, has not spent a word for my solution of flanking thermal power plants, incinerators, high furnaces, cement plants, common chimneys to limestone greenhouses with large artificial rains with water recycling that they would produce carbonates in the water that would be sent to the sea, to which alkaline water would be convenient, since they are acidifying and the glaciers melting. I do not know if these great scientists are convinced, like the patent offices, that my inventions are “perpetual motion” or keep silent because they have understood that since the beginning of the industrial era, they have allowed governments and multinationals to make huge wrong investments on wrong energy and purification principles In both cases, the United Nations must be the one to clarify. Not in words but with demonstration prototypes, which certainly cannot be afforded by the undersigned, who has already spent about 20,000 euros to deposit forty national and international public utility patents that are not worth a shred of copyright because patent filings only serve to protect the industrial property of those who can pay, even if the inventions are environmentally wrong.
Could you ask yourself why I chose to file patents instead of writing books? I believe I did both by posting articles online immediately after filing patents. But patent deposits are important because, the huge archive of world patents shows that no one has ever tried to rationally clean fossil energy by reacting water fumes and limestone, as nature has done, since the primordial era, when atmospheric gases were much more polluting and numerous than now. If this system worked in the primordial era, why should it not work also by artificially creating the right environments for reactions to take place?
The two figures below show the solutions proposed by the undersigned to complement the large plants that produce CO2 and organic pollution.
The first is that of the adjacent FSV and LDDC buildings studied before the invention of compressed hydroelectric energy. It shows the cross section of the large VSB vertical buildings and of the large linear composting dehydrator digesters that should have completed the cycles left hanging both from the chimneys and from the purifiers, reacting in the limestone greenhouses the water with the fumes and the calcareous material to close the carbon cycle and in the overlapping biological ponds the completion of the organic cycles, which would have worked in combination with the LDDC buildings. Obviously, this solution with the invention of pumps with separate dual supply up to the impeller and to the compressed hydroelectric energy would reduce the costs and multiply the performances. These plants, when fossil energy is eliminated, could be used for vertical agricultural production, creating complete biological cycles that close all the cycles they open. Details of these solutions are available at http://www.spawhe.eu/patent-drawings-synergic-plants/, http://www.spawhe.eu/synergic-plants-files/.
The second solution, developed after the inventions of the pumps with the separate double supply up to the impeller and the compressed hydroelectric energy, concentrates only on an advancement of the state of the art of the limestone greenhouses, since if the fossil energy is completely eliminated for civil installations, large industrial plants that produce steel, incinerators, cement plants and plants that produce lime will not be eliminated. These large plants that will continue to emit CO2 and dust can be flanked by these large underground greenhouses, where the limestone material is moving without the mechanized systems, provided by the undersigned in the previous solution of the FSV buildings. These plants will also be able to support the overlapping biological ponds that global public bodies have never built to complete the purification and alkalinization cycles, producing energy instead of consuming it.
These plants will be very simple and efficient even if the bureaucrats of the patent offices have declared them perpetual motion, while world science, governments, the United Nations, entrepreneurs, environmental associations are silent.
Today to assert that energy is not created from nothing is a scientific banality because quantum physics that deals specifically with the energy mysteries of the universe, is using quantum computers to try to understand the mysteries of the origins of matter, electromagnetism and universal gravity. The quantum computer is able to process – at the same time, through parallel computing, more solutions to a single problem instead of carrying out sequential calculations as is now the case with electronic processing. Today, the only certainty about the perpetual motion possess the ignorant who have memorized the principles of thermodynamics that are absent in fluid dynamics and electromagnetics that are used to produce hydroelectric energy and water recycling.
Who taught these principles in world universities has not been able to teach the neutralization of the side effects of heat production, above all, pollution, but also the reasons for which they have accepted the low efficiency of engines and thermal power plants that do not exceed the efficiency of 35 – 40% of the lower calorific value of the fuel, while the statically exploited compressed air energy, not only costs nothing, but has no pressure limits. The scientists and inventors of the past only had to invent the way to overcome the state of inertia of small aquatic masses as nature does with large masses to produce the carbon cycle and thermohaline circulation using gravity, atmospheric pressure and different densities, position and temperature of water and air. The undersigned has investigated these phenomena to reduce the costs of purification and alkalisation of water, especially to neutralize CO2. This research allowed me to identify hydroelectric energy with the recycling of water at atmospheric and compressed pressure. The global public bodies and the multinationals could not identify these energies because they never thought of achieving global cycles by modifying the chimneys, the sewage treatment plants and the thermal power plants as the undersigned has done in all the national and international patents that they have allowed to lapse without ever finance them.
It is obvious that those who did not know or not wanted to conceive interactive purification, could not conceive interactive energies. What is not obvious is the global silence on these logical and linear solutions that do not need secret formulas and that for the undersigned can not even fail because everything he proposes has already been scientifically legislated and technologically tested but never put together synergistically. This is due to the division of scientific and technological skills that have prevented the entire world from designing complete systems. It is not logical that these things are also silent on environmental oppositions that do not want to go into the details of alternative solutions but only choose the lesser evil studied by public research institutions and multinationals. In many cases there are also conflicts of interest due to large contracts that no one questions on the technical and scientific level and the sale of public patents to private companies on solutions, which the identification of interactive systems make obsolete.
For myself, those who have insisted on improving fossil energy without neutralizing CO2, and those who for over a century have been trying to divide the atom, without neutralizing radioactive waste, have produced more damage than good for humanity and to the world economy, because with a little patience interactive energies could be identified for at least a hundred years, being the solutions already implicit in natural systems and in the laws already published by Einstein, Newton, Henry, Pascal, Torricelli. In fact, CO2 is easy to neutralize. It has virtually neutralized the undersigned in national and international patents, first separating it from the air, being heavier (through modified chimneys), and then making it react chemically with water and the limestone material that is widely present in nature. To economize the fossil energy cleaning processes, completed after eight years of solitary studies and around 25 patent deposits, ignored by world public science, the undersigned has identified the interactive energies in 2014 and 2016, also them ignored by public and private world science. Obviously, even from scientific journalism, politicians, and legislators and judges worldwide.
All these gentlemen of the past and present who have not investigated and kept silent about global purification and interactive energy, have created a development full of defects, where the various branches of science do not interact with each other. The same thing was done by the designers of the great world plant and structural works. The result we had, in addition to global warming, are also immense public works completely wrong both to produce energy, to purify and to travel. In fact, if energy costs little and purifies the environment by dissolving oxygen in water, we must not save it, but produce it even where it is not needed. Therefore, it makes no sense to use aerodynamics to travel in the atmosphere, which saves energy, but does not allow the transport of large loads, while on earth we are forced to build roads bridge galleries viaducts and to destroy forests only to move from one place to another, with very high costs. Therefore, over long distances, the cheapest, fastest and safest way to move goods and people will be by air. We conclude this presentation by talking about the artificial heart of man which is nothing that the miniaturization of one of the compressed hydroelectric systems described above. In particular, the one used by the undersigned to lift and oxygenate the wells of the water we drink, which today is polluted by every type of substance used in agriculture to combat pests, by non-purified organic substances, by agricultural fertilizers, etc. If with this system we could enter the wells and oxygenate the water, I asked myself why not reduce the size even more and let the system enter the man’s chest to circulate and oxygenate human blood?
THE ARTIFICIAL OSSIGENATOR HEART OF THE AUTONOMOUS ENERGY BLOOD was the fifteenth open letter (without answers) to the international Court of Justice and United Nations. Obviously, not even governments and large private companies worldwide have responded.
Of the blood oxygenator system I have already spoken indirectly in this presentation as it is based on the same scientific principles already illustrated in describing the previous implants that try to complete THE INCOMPLETE INVENTIONS OF SCIENCE. But it must be said that even this invention would never have been conceived by medical science, as the industrial one was not able to overcome the thermal engines, the nuclear neutralize the radioactive waste, the solar and wind overcoming the limits due to the discontinuity energy, because working in watertight compartments inevitably leads to the acceptance of incomplete systems because not everything can be solved with a single technology or a single branch of science.
By thinking about small but complete implants, the artificial blood oxygenator was also born. It has aroused much interest from publishers and congress organizers, who have also offered me a stay in a hotel abroad to illustrate it, but I did not accept it because for a simple pensioner, ignored by scientific, political and economic institutions, even the travel costs are an insurmountable problem. I talk about it at this congress in Rome only because it is close to home. Even the age and difficulty in speaking the English language, which until now I have only written, are problems. But the main problem is the hypocrisy and the lack of transparency of the world ruling class. As I wrote in my last article (THE CRIME OF OMISSION IS THE DAILY BREAD OF SCIENCES, BUROCRATES AND WORLD GOVERNMENTS), which is the twentieth open letter to international judges and the United Nations, it is certain that some research laboratories are trying to modify genetically man. I do not condemn these researches. I only say that even if they create super men, they will not be immortal and free from accidents. The artificial heart blood oxygenator serves for survival and lengthen human life.
Not even the artificial heart was able to break the wall of silence of public and private science. If someone accepts the logic of the artificial heart functioning, others must also accept the logic of global purification, of interactive energy, which means accepting the failure of the current industrial age.
Obviously, even the artificial heart oxygenator of the blood cannot function without the invention of the pump with the separate double supply up to the impeller that the undersigned has transformed into an international patent (WO2017 / 042847 published 16/03/2017) which unfortunately, the world has not financed.
The artificial heart works like the other compressed hydroelectric plants, but using a lower pressure compatible with the human organism. While the shape of the autoclaves used is similar to that used to lift and purify water in the wells. Someone more skilled in hydraulics can assert that the flow that enters from the side with less pressure is lower than that which is recycled inside the autoclave. In fact, the side with a higher static pressure has lower load losses, but this fact is not very important for the purpose of operation. Incrementando i giri della pompa raggiungiamo ugualmente la portata di sangue che serve all’organismo umano (5 – 15 L/min).
In fact, by varying the revolutions of the pump, both the inlet and the recycled flow rate vary, but only the quantity of blood coming from the outside enters the pump used as turbine inside the autoclave (2.1 – 2.2), which is not powered by any electrical energy. It is that which produces energy, expelling at the same time the amount of blood entered that is incompatible with the volumetric capacities of the small autoclave. But the expulsion takes place with the force of the small cushion of compressed air, and since it happens at the same instant of the water that enters, the air cushion can not expand and can not consume energy. It can only be produced by rotating the multi-stage pump impellers and the shaft connected to the generator (3.1 – 3.2). The liquid level excursion is regulated by the level sensors (10.1 -10.2). In fact, if the level is lowered, the revolutions of the motors increase (6.1 -6-2) which increase the flow rate of the pump which raises the level only with the blood coming from the outside. If the blood level increases the revolutions of the motors are lowered automatically. The system is managed by an electronic control unit (12) to which the following parameters are received:
the number of revolutions of the circulation pumps motors (6.1 – 6.2);
the signal of the high or low level of the sensors (10.1 -10.2);
The 4 – 20 mA signal of the pressure transmitters (13.1 – 13.2);
Since this value is the one that must be controlled by the electronic control unit (12) depending on the activity performed (rest, normal, fast), the pressure to be maintained automatically can be set by varying the revolutions of the motors (6.1 – 6.2) and the working pressure of the autoclave through the operation of the compressor (8) and the position of the level of the sensors (10.1 – 10.2). The three adjustments are necessary to perfectly center the points of best functioning that can also be identified by the storage of the energy absorbed by the motors of the circulation pumps (6.1 -6.2) and of the one produced by the current generators (3.1 – 3.2) in the three predefined working conditions, ordered vocally to the control unit. In fact, both the circulation pumps and those used as turbines, will have operating curves drawn at the different numbers of revolutions and pressures, traced in the phase of development of the final prototypes. The operating points with better efficiency for each rest position, normal, fast activity, will correspond to the lower absorption of the motors (6.1 -6.2) and the maximum energy produced by the generators (3.1 – 3.2).
Since the spaces are quite small, it is probably not possible to reach the maximum flow rates (25 L / min.) And the maximum pressures (180 mm / Hg), but stop at more moderate values (5 – 15 L / min. maximum pressures of 140 mm / Hg Considering that the pressures measured with the natural heart oscillate between the systolic and diastolic values, the artificial heart will avoid pressure peaks and low pressures, both of which are unwanted for different reasons.
According to the medical literature, the average blood flow in an adult person is about 5 L / minute while the pressure oscillates between the systolic value, equal to about 120 mm / Hg and the diastolic value of 80 mm / Hg due to the contractions of ventricles. These values increase under stress up to over 25 L / minute and pressure of 180 mm / Hg and decrease when you sleep. Arterial pressure is determined by three main factors:
the amount of blood that is released into the circulation during systole;
the viscosity of the blood (hematocrit);
Resistances offered by vessels (arteries and veins) to the passage of blood flow.
In the artificial heart designed as two small autoclaves that replace the right and left ventricles and ventricles, the blood flow is regulated by two mini-pumps with variable revolutions, equipped with a separate double supply up to the impeller, while the circulation pressure is provided by a mini electrocompressor placed outside, but in the future, it can also be installed in the ribcage, connected to an eternal air intake. We should not be surprised by this solution because the compressor will be very small, having to supply only the amount of air that dissolves in the blood. If we pressurize the mini autoclaves to 1.0 bar that correspond to 750 mm / Hg of mercury, we double the capacity of oxidation of the blood due to the law of Henry and Dalton with respect to atmospheric pressure. The phenomenon of solubilization of gas in the water is quantifiable in milligrams of water per liter of gas (nitrogen, oxygen, CO2, helium, etc) according to the law of Dalton, on the partial pressure of the gas and Henry on the solubility in water of the same.
According to Dalton’s law, the sum of the corresponding partial pressures must be equal to atmospheric pressure (1 atm = 101.3 kPa) and in fact:
Nitrogen: 79.014 kPa; Oxygen: 21.232 kPa; Carbon dioxide: 0.04 kPa; Argon: 0.8104 kPa;
other gases: 0.2127 kPa. Total (air): 101.3 kPa.
The Henry’s law says that at constant temperature, the solubility of a gas is directly proportional to the pressure that the gas exerts on the solution. Reached equilibrium, the liquid is defined saturated with the gas at that pressure. This state of equilibrium is maintained until when the external pressure of the gas will stay the same, otherwise, if it increases, more gas will enter into solution; if it decreases, the liquid will be in a situation of supersaturation and the gas is freed back up to the outside when the pressures are again balanced. The speed, with which a gas enters or is free in solution, varies as a function of the difference of the pressures (external and internal) and is conditioned by its molecular composition and the nature of the solvent liquid.
To compare among them the solubility of gases in liquids, you may consider their absorption coefficient, which is the volume of gas at normal conditions (T = 20 ° C and p = 1 atm) and expressed in milliliters which was dissolved in a milliliter of liquid. In the table are reported the absorption coefficients in water of some gases at different temperatures at atmospheric pressure:
|0°C||20 °C||30 °C|
In order to understand the meaning of the data in the table, for example, consider the value of 0.028 corresponding to the coefficient of absorption of oxygen in water at 20 ° C at atmospheric pressure. This means that in a vessel containing water at 20 ° C, the gas phase above the liquid contains oxygen to the partial pressure of 1 atm, in a milliliter of water is dissolved O2 equal to a volume of 0.028 mL. In a tank pressurized at a bar more than atmospheric pressure the amount of soluble oxygen doubles and becomes 0.056 mL.
The first principle of thermodynamics is a formulation of the principle of conservation of energy and states that: “The internal energy of an isolated thermodynamic system is constant”. In other words it means that energy is transformed, not produced. This is also confirmed in the field of chemical energy, where The Law of Lavoisier, also known as the law of mass conservation, states that in the course of a chemical reaction the sum of the masses of the reagents is equal to the sum of the masses of the products. In other words, in the course of a chemical reaction, matter is not created and not destroyed.
The first principle of dynamic fluid has not been formulated by science, but for myself it denies the principles of thermodynamics and chemistry, because starting from the exploitation of the gravitational force and the position energy of a non-compressible fluid, energy can be create in any place where there is a liquid and a compressible gas, such as atmospheric air, including the inside of the human body, where there is blood and the air we breathe.
If we wish to formulate a general principle of dynamic fluid, we could say that: the electrical energy that an isolated dynamic fluid system can transmit outside its own system is proportional to the pressure of the compressible fluid acting on the incompressible liquid for the liquid flow rate. incompressible, the density of the same, the efficiency of the electric pump with the double power supply separated to the impeller, which introduces it into the system, and the efficiency of the pump used as a turbine that transforms static and kinetic pressure energy into electrical energy. However, talking about efficiency in this system is quite improper because there is no consumption and transformation of matter, as happens in thermodynamics, chemistry and nuclear, but only the wear and tear of materials
The legend is reported:
(A) blood entry from a systemic circuit, (A1) connection with quick coupling and external cap for first aid supply; (B) blood output to the lungs, (B1) quick coupling and external cap for first aid supply; (C) entry of oxygenated blood from the lungs, (C1) attachment with quick coupling and external cap for first aid feeding; (D) oxygenated blood output to the systemic circuit, (D1) attachment with quick coupling and external cap for first aid supply. (1.1 – 1.2) pressurized tanks in biocompatible material; (2.1 – 2.2) pump used as a turbine; (3.1 – 3.2) direct current generator; (4.1 – 4.2) filter against impurities, clots of blood and air bubbles; (5) electric pump with double separate power supply up to the impeller; (5.1) transmission shaft; (5.2) partitions divisions up to the impeller; (5.2) partition divider in the pump body up to the impeller; (5.3) pump impeller; (5.4) pump diffuser; (5.5 – 5.6) double curve with separator partitions and transmission shaft passage tube; (6.1 – 6.2) 12 vdc motor with variable revolutions; (7.1 – 7.2) clapet check valve; (8) 12 V DC electrocompressor; (9) shut-off valve and check valve; (10.1 – 10.2) level regulator with capacitive probes; (11) 12 v DC electrical voltage stabilizer; (12) electronic control unit for power supply and system control; (13.1 – 13.2) 4 – 20 mA pressure transmitting probe.
Let’s see the path of the blood by looking at fig.1:
1. From the systemic circuit the superior vena cava and the inferior vena cava carry oxygen-poor blood to one of the mini pump (5) feeds with the separate double feed up to the impeller, inserted in the pressurized mini autoclave (1.1) (which replaces the atrium and the right ventricle of the heart). The second supply of the mini pump (5) internally recycling the blood present in the autoclave to the pressurized tank (1.1), allows to balance the pressure in the impeller and to make a first oxygenation of the blood due to Henry’s law. Lightening the work of the lungs. The check valve (7.1) guarantees one-way flow.
2. From the right mini autoclave (1.1) exits through the blood through a mini pump used as a turbine (2.1) and a filter against impurities of blood clots and air bubbles (4.1) reducing the pressure, while a small dynamo (3.1) connected to the shaft of the turbine produces direct current electricity. The output of the mini right autoclave feeds the lungs where the oxygenation of the blood takes place;
3. The oxygenated blood from the pulmonary capillaries arrives in the lower area of the lungs, where the pulmonary veins feed another minipump (5) with the separate double feed up to the impeller, inserted in the pressurized mini autoclave (1.2) (which replaces the atrium and the left ventricle of the heart). The second feeding of the mini pump (5) internally recycling the blood present in the autoclave inside the pressurized tank (1.2), allows to balance the pressure in the impeller and to effect a further oxygenation of the blood due to Henry’s law. Lightening the work of the lungs. The check valve (7.2) guarantees one-way flow.
4. From the mini left autoclave (1.2) the blood exits passing through a mini pump used as turbine (2.2) and a filter against impurities clots of blood and air bubbles (4.2) reducing the pressure, while a small dynamo (3.1) connected the turbine shaft produces direct current electricity. The output of the mini autoclave left feeds the artery called aorta, and from there it resumes its path within the systemic circulation.
We do not have to worry about the greater pressure contained in the autoclaves compared to the internal pressure of the human organism because this greater pressure exists only in the autoclave, the blood pressure measured at the exit of the turbines (2.1 – 2.2) after having exploited and reduced it will fall within the values normal human body. In fact, the hydraulic resistance of the turbine and the mechanical one of the current generator, well proportioned in the testing of the prototypes can give a precise regulation of the pressure, but the greater regulation will be made through the number of engine revolutions (6.1 – 6.2) of the pump of power supply with the double power supply separated up to the impeller.
Human blood is a liquid with a color ranging from ruby red to purplish red depending on the amount of oxygen bound to hemoglobin; has a viscosity about 4 times higher than water and a specific weight of 1.041-1.062 g / cm3. For the purposes of energy calculations it is important both the high viscosity that reduces the loss of load, and the density that increases the power absorbed by the pumps and produced in the turbines.
Assuming to use the blood with a mean density between the two implants 1,055 and that the pump used as a turbine and that of blood circulation have the same efficiency (0,60), that the flow rate of the pump is 10 L / min (0,166 L / s) load losses 0.2 m, the circulation pump absorbs 0.57 Watt (0.166 * 0.2 * 1055/102 * 06), while the turbine exploits the flow rate of 5 L / min (0.083 L / s) and the autoclave pressure of 10 m produces a power of 5.17 watts (0.6 * 0.083 * 10 * 1055/102).Considerando che abbiamo due mini impianti idroelettrici pressurizzati che lavorano in parallelo, abbiamo una potenza assorbita di 1.14 W e una potenza energetica prodotta di 10,34 Watt.
Therefore, without energy sources external to the human body we can manage a small digital electronic circuit (12), equipped with a voltage stabilizer (12 v DC), which feeds the mini compressor (8) to maintain constant pressure and blood levels in the autoclaves using the level regulators (10.1 – 10.2) and adjust the number of revolutions of the motors (6.1 – 6.2) of the pumps that regulate the flow rate of the blood. If we need a higher energy output, we should only increase the working pressure of the mini autoclaves and the capacity of the pumps with the motors (6.1 – 6.2), controlling the outlet pressure with the pressure transmitters (13.1 – 13.2 ) arranged near the B1-D1 couplings, which depend on the operating curves of the pumps used as turbines (2.1 – 2.2), which as seen in Fig. 1 are shown in three stages having to lower the pressure from about 750 Hg to the normal pressure of circulation (80 – 140 Hg). However, the adjustments must not be done by the patient, but by the voice control control unit (12).
As mentioned above, the pressure of the mini autoclaves is limited within the autoclaves to produce the pressure energy for the circulation of blood (according to the principle of Torricelli and the dissolution of oxygen in the blood according to the principles of Henry and Dalton). But the outlet pressure can be established precisely only by verifying the operating characteristics of the pumps used as turbines. If we increase the pressures with the compressor (8) we also increase the pressures detected by the pressure transmitters (13.1-13.2); if we increase the flow of blood with the engines (6.1 – 6.2) part of the pressure is absorbed by the pressure drops of the pumps used as turbines and the pressure is lowered. But we may have an excess of disproportionate scope for human activity that takes place. Since the flow rates of the blood can not be measured in the human body, moment by moment, it is necessary to realize the optimal operating curves in the laboratory so that they are stored in the electronic control unit (12). At each pressure level measured by the pressure transmitters (13.1 – 13.2) corresponds an ideal number of revolutions of the motors (6.1 – 6.2) and automatically an optimum pressure level supplied by the compressor (8), depending on the pump test performance used as turbines (2.1 – 2.2). These can not be adjusted, unless we add an adjustable mechanical or electromagnetic brake to the current generator connected to them. If we use a mechanical brake, they dissipate energy, but if we use a heavier electromagnetic brake with a larger quantity of magnets, we produce more energy. This is a choice we have to make according to the energy we need to manage the artificial heart with maximum efficiency.
The scientific and technological world, which has not identified the primary clean source of global energy along with the legislators are making themselves silly with their silences, forcing the undersigned to patent the individual applications of compressed hydroelectric power while everyone pretends that it does not exist and therefore none finances it, like the previous inventions that led to the discovery of this energy. Being the artificial heart the fortieth patent, it can not be random, the isolation in which you find an inventor who seeks sustainable alternative solutions to the centers of power, for this reason I hope that, at least the medical science dissolve this silence and finance at the international level this patent deposit, recognizing the undersigned not the industrial property, but the sweaty copyrights, breaking the wall of silence of the research bodies and multinationals against private inventors.
In the artificial heart and in all similar industrial applications it is evident that the check valves (7.1 and 7.2) kept open by the one-way blood circulation would automatically close if the circulation pumps stopped. These can not be stopped otherwise the artificial heart stops. If this happens, it means that the motor of a pump does not work. But the problem is less serious than natural heart arrest because the other pump continues to function and the blood to the brain, albeit in smaller quantities, continues to arrive. The emergency medical staff from the control circuit (12), realizes which of the two mini autoclave systems does not work and already in the home rescue phase, can connect the internal cardiac circuit to an external artificial heart of the same blood group supplied ambulance. In the hospital the final repair operation will take place, without the patient risking his life. The study of this solution has led to think also for the natural hearts that will have greater chances of survival if you make the predisposition to the connection on the ribcage of four standard bypass attacks for all heart patients awaiting transplantation of a natural heart or an artificial heart, so that they can be rescued before the brain damage occurs by means of an external temporary artificial heart. In fact, we lose consciousness if oxygen does not get to the brain for eight ten seconds. If the absence of oxygen persists for over 4 – 6 minutes, the brain begins to die. Even if the heart can be reactivated, after this period the damages are irreversible.
Neurological, pneumocardiological medical science and the medical electromechanical equipment industry are not guilty of this delay in the advancement of the state of the art in preventing neurological death that renders heart resuscitation useless. Four minutes are very few to be able to intervene, and yet with the artificial hearts available and an efficient organization, four minutes could be enough. In fact, if we look at Fig.1 we can see that there are the positions (A1-B1-C1- D1) that in the legend are called “quick coupling and external cap for first aid supply”. With these predispositions carried out surgically on all subjects at risk of heart attack, a blood circulation parallel to the heart can be organized immediately regardless of cardiac stimulation by cardiac massage or defibrillator. Certainly this solution is more efficient and safe than cardiac massages and external defibrillators, which only in 2-3% of cases are successful, when the heart has stopped for several seconds. When a heart is sick, it is necessary to think of the definitive substitution of the heart with a new heart, natural or artificial, but nothing excludes cardiac dysfunction. I think that the quality of life of men and women of the future will not be much worse if you have four holes with quick hydraulic couplings (already existing at the state of the art) on the chest hidden with skin-colored caps, considering that many people today they make tattoos in various parts of the body. When the artificial heart will be a reality, in every home there should be an artificial heart already ready for use with the blood group of the risk person equipped with standard quick couplings for connection to the connection points (A1 – B1 – C1 – D1) of natural or artificial hearts to be rescued. Four minutes are few but enough to save the life and the integrity of the brain of people who love each other if nothing is left to chance. But we must also think about children born with serious cardiac malformations that are destined to never become adults. I think that as soon as the predispositions can be made (A1 – B1 – C1 – D1) the child can live an almost normal life with an external artificial heart of small size and weight (without batteries) and when it will exceed the age of growth the implant can be installed totally or partially inside the ribcage. This will depend on the evolution that the state of the art will undergo in the coming years.
However, from the description of this patent filing, it should be clear that in the future the life of man and woman will lengthen greatly. Much of life will be spent with artificial hearts ever more perfect, not so much from the hydraulic and mechanical point of view, already quite defined by myself (even if the performance will improve continuously, especially using new lightweight and resistant biocompatible synthetic materials) but above all, from the management one. It will be very important to manage the functions of the artificial heart directly with the brain or at least with voice commands, without maneuvering a digital keyboard. The small compressor and the control unit must also be miniaturized and inserted under the skin. This is not impossible because, as explained, the statically-used compressed air must not be expelled as it does in the pneumatic motors. Only the one that is dissolved in the blood is consumed as in the lungs. Probably, since the artificial heart improves the capacity of oxygenation, if necessary, it will be possible to slightly limit the space of expansion of the lungs to let everything enter the chest. This can be precisely defined after having made the first prototypes. I publish these things, coherently, with previous publications, hoping that the International Judges and the WIPO (World International Property Organization) understand what they have not understood until now. That is, that environmental, energy, health, and public utility patents must be treated differently from commercial patents, recognizing intellectual property and copyrights to inventors. The industrial property may concern the single pump, turbine, compressor, electronic control unit, if the manufacturers believe they have special requirements, which fall within the criteria of patentability.
Luigi Antonio Pezone